Author : Haya Assem
Reviewed By : Enerpize Team
Average Merchandise Inventory: Definition, Formula, Examples
Write Your conent here
Inventory management is the main pillar of any business. Balancing overstocking and understocking can be a challenging equation to solve, but it is essential for a balanced stock and sustainable business.
Various inventory management methods may be used to properly manage a business's inventory, such as ABC analysis, the perpetual inventory system, FIFO and LIFO accounting, and the Average merchandise inventory methods. Each of them is useful, but which one to choose depends on the specific demands of each business.
The average merchandise inventory is a vital inventory management indicator since it provides insight into the efficiency and health of the business's inventory system. The average inventory approach is especially useful for businesses that rely mostly on managing physical goods, such as those in the retail, manufacturing, and wholesale distribution sectors.
What is the average merchandise inventory formula?
The average inventory is a financial metric that represents the mean value of a company's inventory over a specific period of time. It is commonly calculated by taking the sum of the beginning inventory and the ending inventory for a given period and dividing that sum by 2. The resulting average provides a smoothed representation of the inventory value, helping businesses analyze and manage their stock levels effectively.
The average inventory is calculated using the following formula:
Average inventory Formula = (Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory) ÷ 2
Here's a breakdown of the terms:
Beginning Inventory: The value of inventory at the beginning of the accounting period.
Ending Inventory: The value of inventory at the end of the accounting period.
The formula smooths out any fluctuations in inventory levels that may occur during the period by taking the average. This average may be used to calculate crucial financial ratios like inventory turnover and days sales of inventory, which show how well a company manages its inventory.
The average merchandise inventory formula evaluates a company's inventory management efficiency and serves as a base for determining key financial ratios. The Inventory Turnover Ratio and Days Sales of Inventory (DSI) are the two essential ratios calculated from average inventory.
Inventory Turnover Ratio: This ratio calculates how many times a company's inventory is sold and replaced over a certain time period. It is calculated using the following formula:
Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory
Days Sales of Inventory (DSI): It is the average number of days it takes a company to sell its entire inventory over a certain time period. It is calculated using the following formula:
Days Sales of Inventory = (Average Inventory / Cost of Goods Sold) × Days in period
How to calculate the average inventory formula
Calculating the average inventory involves a straightforward formula, especially when you have the beginning inventory (BI) and ending inventory (EI) values. Here are the steps to calculate the average inventory:
Average Merchandise Inventory = Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory ÷ 2
How to calculate the average inventory stepbystep

Determine Beginning Inventory: Find the value of your inventory at the beginning of the accounting period. This is typically the value of all products and goods on hand at the start of the period.

Determine Ending Inventory: Find the value of your inventory at the end of the accounting period. This is the value of all products and goods on hand at the close of the period.

Plug Values into the Formula: Take the beginning inventory and the ending inventory values and plug them into the formula:
Average Inventory = Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory ÷ 2

Perform the Calculation: Add the values of beginning inventory and ending inventory, and then divide the sum by 2.

Interpret the Result: The result of this calculation gives you the average merchandise inventory for the specific period. This average is useful for various financial analyses and ratios, such as inventory turnover.
A practical example of the average inventory formula
Consider a retail business operating in the food industry. At the beginning of a specific month, the company had an inventory valued at $50,000, comprising various food items. As the month progressed, new stock arrived, and customers made purchases, leading to an ending inventory value of $70,000 at the close of the month.
Given information:
Beginning inventory = $50,000
Ending inventory = $70,000
Following the average inventory formula:
Average inventory Formula = (Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory) ÷ 2
Average Inventory = (50,000 + 70,000) ÷ 2 = 120,000 / 2 = 60,000
So, the average merchandise inventory for the period is $60,000.
Keep in mind that this formula provides a simple average and is often used for analytical purposes to understand trends and make informed decisions about inventory management.
When to use the average merchandise inventory formula?
The average inventory formula is commonly used in various business settings to effectively analyze and manage inventory. Effective inventory management, as facilitated by the average inventory formula, is essential for financial analysis, strategic decisionmaking, and operational optimization in businesses with varying stock levels and seasonal demands.
Here are some instances when it's appropriate to use the average inventory formula:
Financial Analysis
The average merchandise inventory formula is used to provide insights into inventory management efficiency while doing financial analysis, particularly when calculating ratios such as inventory turnover or days sales of inventory.
Budgeting and Planning
Businesses use this approach for estimating typical inventory levels throughout the budgeting and planning process. This data is critical for projecting cash flow and working capital requirements.
Supply Chain Management
For businesses that deal with physical goods, the formula helps in optimizing inventory levels along the supply chain, eliminating stockouts, and decreasing excess stock.
Resource capacity planning
Retailers use the formula to prepare for sales seasons, promotions, and events, and ensure adequate product supply without excessive overstock.
Spot purchasing & manufacturing trends
The formula may be used by businesses to assess the effectiveness of their inventory management systems over certain time periods, identifying trends and areas for development.
Limitations of average inventory formula
Despite its widespread use, the average merchandise inventory formula has limitations. From sensitivity to seasonal variations to potential errors in estimated balances, understanding these constraints is crucial for accurate inventory management and financial analysis.
Estimation errors
The method is based on estimations for the beginning and ending inventories, which might lead to inaccuracies if the calculations are not exact. Estimated balance inaccuracies might alter the calculated average inventory.
Sensitivity to Seasonal Variations
The formula may not account for seasonal fluctuations in demand. If a business experiences significant seasonal variations, the average might not accurately represent inventory needs during peak and offpeak periods.
Shortterm fluctuations may be overlooked
By averaging the beginning and ending inventory, the formula may overlook shortterm fluctuations or spikes in inventory levels during the period. This could lead to misinterpretation of inventory management effectiveness.
Not appropriate for all inventory patterns
For businesses with irregular or unexpected inventory trends, the average inventory calculation may not be appropriate. Other options may be better suited for businesses with quick fluctuations in demand or justintime (JIT) inventory systems.
Is the average inventory formula right for your business?
Determining if the average inventory formula is suitable for your company requires taking into account several aspects linked to your industry, business model, and operational characteristics.
If your business has reasonably stable and predictable inventory levels, the average inventory formula is probably suitable. However, if your inventory fluctuates significantly or you use a justintime (JIT) model, alternative systems such as FIFO or LIFO may be more suited.
Take into account industry norms and best practices. Different industries may have different preferences for inventory valuation and management methods. Researching how similar businesses in your industry handle inventory may provide insights.
Determine whether your business's demand varies significantly from season to season. If this is the case, the average inventory formula may not accurately reflect the dynamics of your inventory throughout peak and offpeak periods.
Evaluate how simple it is to implement the average inventory calculation into your accounting and financial processes. Some businesses may find this process simple and useful, while others may prefer a different approach. It all depends on each business's particular needs.
Key Takeaways

The average merchandise inventory formula assesses a company's inventory efficiency, smoothing fluctuations. It supports crucial ratios like Inventory Turnover and Days Sales of Inventory (DSI), which measure replenishment frequency and average days to sell inventory, respectively.

To calculate the average merchandise inventory, use the formula: Average Inventory = (Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory) ÷ 2. Find the values for the start and end of the accounting period, plug them into the formula, add the values, and divide by 2.

The average inventory formula is used in financial analysis for efficiency insights, budgeting for cash flow projections, and supply chain management to optimize inventory. It also aids retailers in resource planning and allows businesses to assess inventory trends and areas for improvement.

The formula is commonly used despite its limitations, it relies on estimations for beginning and ending inventories, leading to potential errors. It may overlook shortterm fluctuations and lack accuracy in representing seasonal variations, impacting precise inventory management and financial analysis.

Choosing the average inventory formula depends on factors like inventory stability, industry norms, and seasonal demand. If your business has stable inventory, the formula works; otherwise, consider alternatives based on industry practices and the simplicity of integration into accounting processes, tailored to your specific business needs.